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Lesson Nine - Combinations, 'the' and more prepositions

Part A: Throat letter Combinations and word combinations

g in Greek is a hard g, but when you combine it with some other letters it becomes more of an 'ng' sound. For example:

When pronouncing gg, gk and gc, speak the first g like 'ng' like in 'singer.

aggeloj means messenger (angel in English). The first g is pronounced 'ng', the second g is pronounced with a hard g. Pick the right pronounciaton:

1.a ag-el-los..................... b. ang-gel-os


Here are two words which can be used in word combinations:

eu - good
arch - chief, old, beginning

Join eu with aggeloj can lead to such combinations as a prefix(match these)

2. euaggelisthj (one who gives a good message - noun)..........c. preach
3. euaggelizw (give a good message - verb)....................d. proclaimer
4. euaggelion (good message - noun)...........................e. gospel

Match again here with other word combinations:

5. anticristoj.............f. Patriarch: honoured male ancestor
6. arcaioj................g. antichrist
7. patriarxhj.............h. archaic

Part B: 'The'

The word 'The' is the letter 't' plus the same ending of the noun it is with.
However if the word 'the' appears with a subject noun, it has no 't' - it is '\o,' pronounced 'haw.' (it has an accent over it). 'The' with a plural subject is written oi.

Match the word 'the' to the noun it belongs to (write down new words in your dictionary)

1. touj...................a. anqrwpoi
2. o.....................b. adelfJ (means 'brother')
3. twn...................c. qeou
4. tJ....................d. lampon (lamp, from lampaj)
5. toij..................e. biblouj
6. oi....................f. qanatoj (death)
7. ton...................g. agrwn (means 'field' compare with the english word 'agriculture')
8. tou...................h. kojmoij

Part C: More Prepositions!

Prepositions have alternate forms and meanings dependant on what the word that comes after them is. This chart helps sort them out neatly:

Preposition Possessive Dative Direct Object
anti instead of, against    
ana     up
amfi     around
apo (af, ap) from    
dia through   because of
en   in  
eij     into
ek (ez) out of, from    
epi (ef, ep) on near, on about, against
kata (Kaq) down from   according to
meta (meq) with   after
para from the side at the side to the side, compared with
peri concerning   near
apo before    
sun   with  
\uper above   over
\upo by under during
amfi     around
proj toward near towards

Now you should be able to translate most of John 1:1 with what you have learnt. Check it against a Bible.
(The Jehovah's Witness version translates this adding the word 'a' but there is no 'a' in the Greek language).

(Translate hn as 'was')

En arch hn o logoj, kai o logoj hn proj ton Qeon, kai Qeoj hn o logoj.


It gets really exciting when you can translate almost a whole sentence in Greek, doesn't it? And this is the end of lesson nine! This is only the tip of the iceberg!
Check your answers with the answer page.

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