Temporary vs. Forever
Impressive vs. Unimpressive
Hidden-yet-revealed vs. Revealed-yet-hidden
Different vs. Solidarity
Heb 1: God, after He spoke long ago to the fathers in the prophets in many portions and in many ways, 2 in these last days has spoken to us in His Son, whom He appointed heir of all things, through whom also He made the world. 3 And He is the radiance of His glory and the exact representation of His nature, and upholds all things by the word of His power. When He had made purification of sins, He sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high; 4 having become as much better than the angels, as He has inherited a more excellent name than they...But of the Son He says, "Thy throne, O God, is forever and ever.
John 1: In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 2 He was in the beginning with God. 3 All things came into being by Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being...And the Word became flesh, and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, glory as of the only begotten from the Father, full of grace and truth...No man has seen God at any time; the only begotten God, who is in the bosom of the Father, He has explained Him
Romans 9.5: whose are the fathers, and from whom is the Christ according to the flesh, who is over all, God blessed forever
Titus 1.3-4: in the proclamation with which I was entrusted according to the commandment of God our Savior; 4 to Titus, my true child in a common faith: Grace and peace from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Savior.
Tit 2.13: looking for the blessed hope and the appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior, Christ Jesus; 14 who gave Himself for us, that He might redeem us from every lawless deed and purify for Himself a people for His own possession, zealous for good deeds
2 Peter 1.1: Simon Peter, a bond-servant and apostle of Jesus Christ, to those who have received a faith of the same kind as ours, by the righteousness of our God and Savior, Jesus Christ
Rom 5.15: But the free gift is not like the transgression. For if by the transgression of the one the many died, much more did the grace of God and the gift by the grace of the one Man, Jesus Christ, abound to the many.
1 Tim 2.5: For there is one God, and one mediator also between God and men, the man Christ Jesus, 6 who gave Himself as a ransom for all
Rom 9.5: whose are the fathers, and from whom is the Christ according to the flesh, who is over all, God blessed forever. Amen
1 Peter 4.1: Therefore, since Christ has suffered in the flesh
1 John 4.2: By this you know the Spirit of God: every spirit that confesses that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is from God
2. The Promise and the Expectation: "God will dwell among men"
And the angel of God, who had been going before the camp of Israel, moved and went behind them; and the pillar of cloud moved from before them and stood behind them. 20 So it came between the camp of Egypt and the camp of Israel; and there was the cloud along with the darkness, yet it gave light at night. Thus the one did not come near the other all night. (Ex 14.19f)
The "breach against Uzzah" (2 Sam 6)
Now the Lord is the Spirit; and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty. 18 But we all, with unveiled face beholding as in a mirror the glory of the Lord, are being transformed into the same image from glory to glory, just as from the Lord, the Spirit. (2 Cor 3.17)
The Promise that God would come to dwell on earth...
Is 24.23: Then the moon will be abashed and the sun ashamed, For the Lord of hosts will reign on Mount Zion and in Jerusalem, And His glory will be before His elders.
Is 25.9: And it will be said in that day, "Behold, this is our God for whom we have waited that He might save us. This is the Lord for whom we have waited; Let us rejoice and be glad in His salvation."
Is 35.3-6: Encourage the exhausted, and strengthen the feeble. 4 Say to those with anxious heart, "Take courage, fear not. Behold, your God will come with vengeance; The recompense of God will come, But He will save you." 5 Then the eyes of the blind will be opened, And the ears of the deaf will be unstopped. 6 Then the lame will leap like a deer, And the tongue of the dumb will shout for joy...
IS 40.3-5, 9-11: A voice is calling, "Clear the way for the Lord in the wilderness; Make smooth in the desert a highway for our God. 4 "Let every valley be lifted up, And every mountain and hill be made low; And let the rough ground become a plain, And the rugged terrain a broad valley; 5 Then the glory of the Lord will be revealed, And all flesh will see it together; For the mouth of the Lord has spoken."... Get yourself up on a high mountain, O Zion, bearer of good news, Lift up your voice mightily, O Jerusalem, bearer of good news; Lift it up, do not fear. Say to the cities of Judah, "Here is your God!" 10 Behold, the Lord God will come with might, With His arm ruling for Him. Behold, His reward is with Him, And His recompense before Him. 11 Like a shepherd He will tend His flock, In His arm He will gather the lambs, And carry them in His bosom; He will gently lead the nursing ewes.
IS 59.15-21: Now the Lord saw, And it was displeasing in His sight that there was no justice. 16 And He saw that there was no man, And was astonished that there was no one to intercede; Then His own arm brought salvation to Him; And His righteousness upheld Him. 17 And He put on righteousness like a breastplate, And a helmet of salvation on His head; And He put on garments of vengeance for clothing, And wrapped Himself with zeal as a mantle. 18 According to their deeds, so He will repay, Wrath to His adversaries, recompense to His enemies; To the coastlands He will make recompense. 19 So they will fear the name of the Lord from the west And His glory from the rising of the sun, For He will come like a rushing stream, Which the wind of the Lord drives. 20 "And a Redeemer will come to Zion, And to those who turn from transgression in Jacob," declares the Lord.
Is 62.10-11: Go through, go through the gates; Clear the way for the people; Build up, build up the highway; Remove the stones, lift up a standard over the peoples. 11 Behold, the Lord has proclaimed to the end of the earth, Say to the daughter of Zion, "Lo, your salvation comes; Behold His reward is with Him, and His recompense before Him."
Is 63.1-5: Who is this who comes from Edom, With garments of glowing colors from Bozrah, This One who is majestic in His apparel, Marching in the greatness of His strength? "It is I who speak in righteousness, mighty to save." 2 Why is Your apparel red, And Your garments like the one who treads in the wine press? 3 "I have trodden the wine trough alone, And from the peoples there was no man with Me. I also trod them in My anger, And trampled them in My wrath; And their lifeblood is sprinkled on My garments, And I stained all My raiment. 4 "For the day of vengeance was in My heart, And My year of redemption has come. 5 "And I looked, and there was no one to help, And I was astonished and there was no one to uphold; So My own arm brought salvation to Me; And My wrath upheld Me.
Is 66.18: For I know their works and their thoughts; the time is coming to gather all nations and tongues. And they shall come and see My glory.
Ezek 43.7-9: And He said to me, "Son of man, this is the place of My throne and the place of the soles of My feet, where I will dwell among the sons of Israel forever. And the house of Israel will not again defile My holy name, neither they nor their kings, by their harlotry and by the corpses of their kings when they die, 8 by setting their threshold by My threshold, and their door post beside My door post, with only the wall between Me and them. And they have defiled My holy name by their abominations which they have committed. So I have consumed them in My anger. 9 "Now let them put away their harlotry and the corpses of their kings far from Me; and I will dwell among them forever.
Zech 2.4-5: and said to him, "Run, speak to that young man, saying, 'Jerusalem will be inhabited without walls, because of the multitude of men and cattle within it. 5 'For I,' declares the Lord, 'will be a wall of fire around her, and I will be the glory in her midst.'"
Zech 2: 10-12[!]:"Sing for joy and be glad, O daughter of Zion; for behold I am coming and I will dwell in your midst," declares the Lord. 11 "And many nations will join themselves to the Lord in that day and will become My people. Then I will dwell in your midst, and you will know that the Lord of hosts has sent Me to you. 12 "And the Lord will possess Judah as His portion in the holy land, and will again choose Jerusalem.
Zech 8.3: Thus says the Lord, 'I will return to Zion and will dwell in the midst of Jerusalem. Then Jerusalem will be called the City of Truth, and the mountain of the Lord of hosts will be called the Holy Mountain.'
Zech 14.4-8,16: And in that day His feet will stand on the Mount of Olives, which is in front of Jerusalem on the east; and the Mount of Olives will be split in its middle from east to west by a very large valley, so that half of the mountain will move toward the north and the other half toward the south. 5 And you will flee by the valley of My mountains, for the valley of the mountains will reach to Azel; yes, you will flee just as you fled before the earthquake in the days of Uzziah king of Judah. Then the Lord, my God, will come, and all the holy ones with Him! 6 And it will come about in that day that there will be no light; the luminaries will dwindle. 7 For it will be a unique day which is known to the Lord, neither day nor night, but it will come about that at evening time there will be light. 8 And it will come about in that day that living waters will flow out of Jerusalem, half of them toward the eastern sea and the other half toward the western sea; it will be in summer as well as in winter...Then it will come about that any who are left of all the nations that went against Jerusalem will go up from year to year to worship the King, the Lord of hosts, and to celebrate the Feast of Booths.
Mal 3.1: Behold, I am going to send My messenger, and he will clear the way before Me. And the Lord, whom you seek, will suddenly come to His temple; and the messenger of the covenant, in whom you delight, behold, He is coming," says the Lord of hosts.
Ps 96.12-13 (and 98.9): Let the field exult, and all that is in it. Then all the trees of the forest will sing for joy 13 Before the Lord, for He is coming; For He is coming to judge the earth. He will judge the world in righteousness, And the peoples in His faithfulness.
The problem of plurality in Jewish thought (the Angel of YHWH and the Son of Man)
I kept looking in the night visions, And behold, with the clouds of heaven One like a Son of Man was coming, And He came up to the Ancient of Days And was presented before Him. 14 "And to Him was given dominion, Glory and a kingdom, That all the peoples, nations, and men of every language Might serve Him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion Which will not pass away; And His kingdom is one Which will not be destroyed.
The Similitudes of Enoch [2nd century BC-1 AD] portray the same (I Enoch 62.1-5 and 51.1f):
"In those days, Sheol will return all the deposits which she had received and hell will give back all that which it owes. And he shall choose the righteous and the holy ones from among the risen dead, for the day when they shall be selected and saved has arrived. And In those days, the Elect One shall sit on my throne, and form the conscience of his mouth shall come out all the secrets of wisdom, for the Lord of the Spirits has given them to him and glorified him. In those days, mountains shall dance like rams; and the hills shall leap like kids satiated with milk. And the faces of all the angels in heaven shall glow with joy, because on that day the Elect One has arisen. And the earth shall rejoice; and the righteous ones shall dwell upon her and the elect ones shall walk upon her.
The Apocalyse of Abraham (1-2 century ad) has the Angel of YHWH (who carries the Name of YHWH within him) being addressed in this song of worship by Abraham (17.8ff):
Metatron is called "the lessor YHWH' in 4-5 century AD works [3 Enoch 12]:
Is 45.23: I have sworn by Myself, The word has gone forth from My mouth in righteousness And will not turn back, That to Me every knee will bow, every tongue will swear allegiance. With Philp 2.10-11: that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of those who are in heaven, and on earth, and under the earth, 11 and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.
The Jewish scholar Jacob Neusner goes so far as to say: "Here is a Torah-teacher who says in his own name what the Torah says in God's name...For what kind of torah is it that improves upon the teachings of the Torah without acknowledging the source--and it is God who is the Source--of those teachings? I am troubled not so much by the message, though I might take exception to this or that, as I am by the messenger...Sages...say things in their own names, but without claiming to improve upon the Torah. The prophet, Moses, speaks not in his own name but in God's name, saying what God has told him to say. Jesus speaks not as a sage nor as a prophet...So we find ourselves...with the difficulty of making sense, within the framework of the Torah, of a teacher who stands apart from, perhaps above, the Torah...We now recognize that at issue is the figure of Jesus, not the teachings at all." [A Rabbi Talks with Jesus, p.30f]
Another specialist in this field, E.P. Sanders, comments on Matt 8.21-22: "What is important here is to see the force of the negative thrust: Jesus consciously requires disobedience of a commandment understood by all Jews to have been given by God...At least once Jesus was willing to say that following him superseded the requirements of piety and the Torah. This may show that Jesus was prepared to challenge, if necessary, the adequacy of the Mosaic dispensation." [Jesus and Judaism, p.254f]
Matt 11.27: All things have been handed over to Me by My Father; and no one knows the Son, except the Father; nor does anyone know the Father, except the Son, and anyone to whom the Son wills to reveal Him.
John 17.25: O righteous Father, although the world has not known Thee, yet I have known Thee; and these have known that Thou didst send Me; 26 and I have made Thy name known to them, and will make it known; that the love wherewith Thou didst love Me may be in them, and I in them."
John 1.18 (NAS): No man has seen God at any time; the only begotten God, who is in the bosom of the Father, He has explained Him.
More than a Davidic King
Heb 1.1-2: God, after He spoke long ago to the fathers in the prophets in many portions and in many ways, 2 in these last days has spoken to us in His Son, whom He appointed heir of all things, through whom also He made the world.
More than Human Authority:
Matt 11.27: All things have been handed over to Me by My Father
Eph 1.20-22: which He brought about in Christ, when He raised Him from the dead, and seated Him at His right hand in the heavenly places, 21 far above all rule and authority and power and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this age, but also in the one to come. 22 And He put all things in subjection under His feet, and gave Him as head over all things to the church, 23 which is His body, the fulness of Him who fills all in all.
More than a Levitical Priest
I Peter 1.18-19: knowing that you were not redeemed with perishable things like silver or gold from your futile way of life inherited from your forefathers, 19 but with precious blood, as of a lamb unblemished and spotless, the blood of Christ.
Heb 9.11ff: But when Christ appeared as a high priest of the good things to come, He entered through the greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands, that is to say, not of this creation; 12 and not through the blood of goats and calves, but through His own blood, He entered the holy place once for all, having obtained eternal redemption. 13 For if the blood of goats and bulls and the ashes of a heifer sprinkling those who have been defiled, sanctify for the cleansing of the flesh, 14 how much more will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered Himself without blemish to God, cleanse your conscience from dead works to serve the living God?
More than a new Moses
John 13.34: A new commandment I give to you, that you love one another, even as I have loved you, that you also love one another. 35 "By this all men will know that you are My disciples, if you have love for one another."
Matthew 28.17ff: All authority has been given to Me in heaven and on earth. 19 "Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, 20 teaching them to observe all that I commanded you;
Jesus and the New Covenant:
Jesus pours out the Covenant blessing, the Holy Spirit -Act 2.33: Therefore having been exalted to the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, He has poured forth this which you both see and hear.
Hebrews 10.28: Anyone who has set aside the Law of Moses dies without mercy on the testimony of two or three witnesses. 29 How much severer punishment do you think he will deserve who has trampled under foot the Son of God, and has regarded as unclean the blood of the covenant by which he was sanctified, and has insulted the Spirit of grace?
More than a Sage
More than man...
Pre-existence (John 17.5): "And now, glorify Thou Me together with Thyself, Father, with the glory which I had with Thee before the world was...(John 17.24): for Thou didst love Me before the foundation of the world... [Also, the Jewish belief that the Messiah was present in Genesis 1:1]
"What manner of man is this?" (Matt 8.23ff): And when He got into the boat, His disciples followed Him. 24 And behold, there arose a great storm in the sea, so that the boat was covered with the waves; but He Himself was asleep. 25 And they came to Him, and awoke Him, saying, "Save us, Lord; we are perishing!" 26 And He *said to them, "Why are you timid, you men of little faith?" Then He arose, and rebuked the winds and the sea; and it became perfectly calm. 27 And the men marveled, saying, "What kind of a man is this, that even the winds and the sea obey Him?"
Response of the evil spirits (Matt 8.28): And when He had come to the other side into the country of the Gadarenes, two men who were demon-possessed met Him as they were coming out of the tombs; they were so exceedingly violent that no one could pass by that road. 29 And behold, they cried out, saying, "What do we have to do with You, Son of God? Have You come here to torment us before the time?"
Response of the good angels (Heb1.6): Let all the angels of God worship Him.
The Tanakh/OT YHWH passages: There are many OT passages referring to YHWH, which are applied to Jesus in the New Testament.
"Every tongue shall confess"-the Judgement Seat of Christ (Romans 9.10-11 with Is 45.23)
"Prepare the way for YHWH" (Matt 3.3 with Is 40.3)
"Stone of stumbling" (1 Peter 2.7,8 with Is 8.13.14)
"Look on Me whom they have pierced" (John 19.37 with Zech 12.10)
"Isaiah saw his glory..." (John 12.41 with Is 6.5)
4. The Self-Awareness of Jesus
John 8.28: Jesus therefore said, "When you lift up the Son of Man, then you will know that I am, and I do nothing on My own initiative, but I speak these things as the Father taught Me.
The Garden scene (John 18.5): They answered Him, "Jesus the Nazarene." He *said to them, "I am." And Judas also who was betraying Him, was standing with them. 6 When therefore He said to them, "I am," they drew back, and fell to the ground. 7 Again therefore He asked them, "Whom do you seek?" And they said, "Jesus the Nazarene." 8 Jesus answered, "I told you that I am; if therefore you seek Me, let these go their way,"
John 9.35ff: Jesus heard that they had put him out; and finding him, He said, "Do you believe in the Son of Man?" 36 He answered and said, "And who is He, Lord, that I may believe in Him?" 37 Jesus said to him, "You have both seen Him, and He is the one who is talking with you." 38 And he said, "Lord, I believe." And he worshiped Him.
Knowledge of the Father (above)
John 17.10: All I have is yours, and all you have is mine. And glory has come to me through them.
John 8.57: The Jews therefore said to Him, "You are not yet fifty years old, and have You seen Abraham?" 58 Jesus said to them, "Truly, truly, I say to you, before Abraham was born, I am."
John 5.20: For the Father loves the Son, and shows Him all things that He Himself is doing; and greater works than these will He show Him, that you may marvel.
John 14.6: Jesus *said to him, "I am the way, and the truth, and the life; no one comes to the Father, but through Me.
John 14.28: You heard that I said to you, 'I go away, and I will come to you.' If you loved Me, you would have rejoiced, because I go to the Father; for the Father is greater than I.
John 15.5f: I am the vine, you are the branches; he who abides in Me, and I in him, he bears much fruit; for apart from Me you can do nothing. 6 “If anyone does not abide in Me, he is thrown away as a branch, and dries up; and they gather them, and cast them into the fire, and they are burned.
Matt 12.1ff:At that time Jesus went on the Sabbath through the grainfields, and His disciples became hungry and began to pick the heads of grain and eat. 2 But when the Pharisees saw it, they said to Him, “Behold, Your disciples do what is not lawful to do on a Sabbath.” 3 But He said to them,“Have you not read what David did, when he became hungry, he and his companions; 4 how he entered the house of God, and they ate the consecrated bread, which was not lawful for him to eat, nor for those with him, but for the priests alone? 5 “Or have you not read in the Law, that on the Sabbath the priests in the temple break the Sabbath, and are innocent? 6 “But I say to you, that something greater than the temple is here.
Greater than angels:
He went after the true enemy--the Ruler of the Age
And this woman, a daughter of Abraham as she is, whom Satan has bound for eighteen long years, should she not have been released from this bond on the Sabbath day?" (Luke 13.16)
Simon, Simon, behold, Satan has demanded permission to sift you like wheat; 32 but I have prayed for you, that your faith may not fail; and you, when once you have turned again, strengthen your brothers." (Luke 22.31)
Now judgment is upon this world; now the ruler of this world shall be cast out. (John 12.31)
But I tell you the truth, it is to your advantage that I go away; for if I do not go away, the Helper shall not come to you; but if I go, I will send Him to you. 8 "And He, when He comes, will convict the world concerning sin, and righteousness, and judgment; 9 concerning sin, because they do not believe in Me; 10 and concerning righteousness, because I go to the Father, and you no longer behold Me; 11 and concerning judgment, because the ruler of this world has been judged. (John 16.7f)
But if I cast out demons by the Spirit of God, then the kingdom of God has come upon you. 29 "Or how can anyone enter the strong man's house and carry off his property, unless he first binds the strong man? And then he will plunder his house. (Matt 12.28)
5. "Fully God and Fully Man"
Thirst (John 19.28: After this, Jesus, knowing that all things had already been accomplished, in order that the Scripture might be fulfilled, *said, "I am thirsty.")
Anguish (John 11.33: "When Jesus therefore saw her weeping, and the Jews who came with her, also weeping, He was deeply moved in spirit, and was troubled" and Mark 14.32: "And they *came to a place named Gethsemane; and He *said to His disciples, "Sit here until I have prayed." 33 And He *took with Him Peter and James and John, and began to be very distressed and troubled. 34 And He *said to them, "My soul is deeply grieved to the point of death; remain here and keep watch.")
Fatigue (John 4.6: Jesus therefore, being wearied from His journey, was sitting thus by the well)
Walking (Mark 10.32: And they were on the road, going up to Jerusalem, and Jesus was walking on ahead of them)
Blood (Matt 26.28: for this is My blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for forgiveness of sins. )
Weeping (John 11.35: Jesus wept.)
Died (Matt 27.50: And Jesus cried out again with a loud voice, and yielded up His spirit...Luke 23.46: And Jesus, crying out with a loud voice, said, "Father, into Thy hands I commit My spirit." And having said this, He breathed His last.")
(NAS) who, although He existed in the form of God, did not regard equality with God a thing to be grasped, 7 but emptied Himself, taking the form of a bond-servant, and being made in the likeness of men.
What it IS - 'taking the form of a servant' (taking a specific role in history, the Suffering Servant)
John 17.5: "And now, glorify Thou Me together with Thyself, Father, with the glory which I had with Thee before the world was [Note: the veiling of His glory in time.]
2 Cor 8.9: For you know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that though He was rich, yet for your sake He became poor, that you through His poverty might become rich.
Mark 10.42-45: And calling them to Himself, Jesus *said to them, "You know that those who are recognized as rulers of the Gentiles lord it over them; and their great men exercise authority over them. 43 "But it is not so among you, but whoever wishes to become great among you shall be your servant; 44 and whoever wishes to be first among you shall be slave of all. 45 "For even the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give His life a ransom for many."
Theologically: He gave up the right to independent use of His divine power and glory(for an agreed-upon time period)
But...we DO know of implicit processes and the 'many selves' aspect
We can choose to suppress knowledge
6. The Result of the Great Intersection
For there is one God, and one mediator also between God and men, the man Christ Jesus, 6 who gave Himself as a ransom for all (1Tim 2.5:
Therefore, since we have a great high priest who has gone through the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold firmly to the faith we profess. 15 For we do not have a high priest who is unable to sympathize with our weaknesses, but we have one who has been tempted in every way, just as we are-yet was without sin. 16 Let us then approach the throne of grace with confidence, so that we may receive mercy and find grace to help us in our time of need. (Heb 4.14)
He was in the world, and though the world was made through him, the world did not recognize him. 11 He came to that which was his own, but his own did not receive him. (John 1.10-11)
If the world hates you, you know that it has hated Me before it hated you. (John 15.18)
And calling them to Himself, Jesus *said to them, "You know that those who are recognized as rulers of the Gentiles lord it over them; and their great men exercise authority over them. 43 "But it is not so among you, but whoever wishes to become great among you shall be your servant; 44 and whoever wishes to be first among you shall be slave of all. 45 "For even the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give His life a ransom for many." (Mark 10.42-45)
The Davidic Son had to be faithful...
The Lamb had to be spotless...
The blessings of Abraham could only come through covenant faithfulness...
And Jesus cried out and said, "He who believes in Me does not believe in Me, but in Him who sent Me. 45 "And he who beholds Me beholds the One who sent Me. (John 12.44)
And He is the image of the invisible God (Col 1.15)
And He is the radiance of His glory and the exact representation of His nature (Heb 1.3)
No one has ever seen God, but God the One and Only, who is at the Father's side, has made him known.(John 1.18)
And the Word became flesh, and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, glory as of the only begotten from the Father, full of grace and truth. (John 1.14)